Space Technology – #36

Space requires new technologies. Much like the space race of the 1950s, engineers are feverishly working to gain a competitive advantage. Mark Lombardi sits down to explore rad hardening, thermal vacuum chambers, space mining, CubeSats, and battery technology.

Hosted by Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman, EEs Talk Tech is a twice-monthly engineering podcast discussing tech trends and industry news from an electrical engineer’s perspective.

Space requires new technologies. Much like the space race of the 1950s, engineers are feverishly working to gain a competitive advantage. Mark Lombardi sits down to explore rad hardening, thermal vacuum chambers, space mining, CubeSats, and battery technology.


Mark Lombardi – 25 years at HP/Agilent/Keysight. He worked for RT logic for a few years, where he got into space.

2:00 – Your odds of survival getting to space are better than getting to the top of Everest.

2:30 – Space mining from the Asteroid belt has the potential to create the worlds first trillionaire.

3:20 – We need to establish manufacturing in space. For example, what if you manufactured satellites on the moon instead of on earth?

4:00 – The main driver is price-per-pound

6:10 – The Space Force – it sounds a little silly at first but is very reasonable when you take a closer look.

7:45 – How do you test objects bound for space?

8:30 – Space is transitioning from government-only to commercial. Businesses are starting to explore how to add value to society and make a profit from space.

9:15 – Phased arrays, reusable rockets, LEO satellites are all changing space technology.

10:00 – Low earth orbit satellites have much lower delay. Geosynchronous satellites have a 250 ms propagation delay.

This has interesting implications for 5G – that 250 ms latency is too long for 5G requirements. So, LEO satellites are what will be used.

12:00 – Using LEO satellites will be deployed in force instead of as singles, as mentioned in the Weather Cubesat podcast.

13:45 – Ghana launched their own satellite, which is a huge step. They eventually won’t be dependent on others for their space access. And, they can do specialized things for reasonable prices.

15:00 – Announcements – we haven’t podcasted in a long time, sorry! We are switching to 1x per month

16:45 – Radiation hardening for electronics, sometimes called electronics hardening. Historically, you had to plan for a long life in a satellite. Now, you don’t have to.

17:30 – It’s also hard to get a rad hardened cutting-edge technology.

18:00 – LEO satellites get less radiation, so it’s less of a problem. And, since they are cheaper, you can build in an expected mortality rate.

19:00 – You can also rev hardware faster, allowing you to use newer technology. Think about imagers, the technology has moved a long way in seven years.

19:55 – Space is cold. Space is a vacuum. So, to test our gear you have to reproduce that on earth. To do that, we use special chambers.

20:50 – Thermal vacuum chambers (T vac) are used to test space objects. Automotive parts are actually very resilient to temperature changes and can be leveraged into space designs.

21:30 – What happens to electronics in space? The vacuum is a bigger challenge than the temperature changes.

23:30 – To get more bandwidth, we have to increase frequency. This leads to attenuation in the air and in cables. Some designers are switching to waveguides.

25:00 – With modular test equipment, you could potentially have test gear that can survive in space.

27:00 – What is the current and projected size of the space industry?

28:10 – What batteries are used in space? What factors into battery decisions? – Lithium ion batteries work well in space, and are used when we can charge them with solar energy.

28:40 – Deep space exploration uses all sorts of obscure battery technology.

29:10 – Electronic propulsion

30:05 – Over 150V, things get interesting. The breakdown voltage is different in space than it is on earth. So, designers have to be very careful.

New 110 GHz Oscilloscope – UXR Q&A #35

Brig Asay, Melissa, and Daniel Bogdanoff sit down to answer the internet’s questions about the new 110 GHz UXR oscilloscope. How long did it take? What did it cost? Find out!

Brig Asay, Melissa, and Daniel Bogdanoff sit down to answer the internet’s questions about the new 110 GHz UXR oscilloscope. How long did it take? What did it cost? Find out!


Some of the questions & comments

S K on YouTube: How long does it take to engineer something like this? With custom ASICs all over the place and what not…

Glitch on YouTube: Can you make a budget version of it for $99?

Steve Sousa on YouTube: But how do you test the test instrument?? It’s already so massively difficult to make this, how can you measure and qualify it’s gain, linearity etc?

TechNiqueBeatz on YouTube: About halfway through the video now.. what would the practical application(s) of an oscilloscope like this be?

Alberto Vaudagna on YouTube: Do you know what happen to the data after the dsp? It go to the CPU motherboard and processed by the CPU or the data is overlayed on the screen and the gui is runner’s by the CPU?

How does a piece of equipment like that get delivered? I just don’t think UPS or Fedex is going to cut it for million+ dollar prototype. It would be nice to see some higher magnification views of the front end.

Ulrich Frank:mNice sturdy-looking handles at the side of the instrument – to hold on to and keep you steady when you hear the price…

SAI Peregrinus: That price! It costs less than half the price of a condo in Brooklyn, NY! (Search on Zillow, sort by price high to low. Pg 20 has a few for $2.7M, several of which are 1 bedroom…)

RoGeorgeRoGeorge: Wow, speechless!


Maic Salazar Diagnostics: This is majestic!!

Sean Bosse: Holy poop. Bet it was hard keeping this quiet until the release.

jonka1: Looking at the front end it looks as if the clock signal paths are of different lengths. How is phase dealt with? Is it in this module or later in software?

cims: The Bugatti Veyron of scopes with a price to match, lol

One scope to rule them all…wow! Keyesight drops the proverbial mic with this one

Mike Oliver: That is a truly beautiful piece of equipment. It is more of a piece of art work than any other equipment I have ever seen.

Gyro on EEVBlog: It’s certainly a step change in just how bad a bad day at the office could really get!
TiN: I have another question, regarding the input. Are there any scopes that have waveguide input port, instead of very pricey precision 1.0mm/etc connectors?
Or in this target scope field, that’s not important as much, since owner would connect the input cable and never disconnect? Don’t see those to last many cable swaps in field, even 2.4mm is quite fragile.

User on EEVBlog: According to the specs, It looks like the 2 channel version he looked at “only” requires 1370 VA and can run off 120V.  The 4 channel version only works off 200-240V

The really interesting question: how do they calibrate that calibration probe.
They have to characterize the imperfections in it’s output to a significantly better accuracy than this scope can measure.  Unless there’s something new under the sun in calibration methodology?

Mikes Electric Stuff‏ @mikelectricstuf: Can I get it in beige?

Yaghiyah‏ @yaghiyah: Does it support Zone Triggering?

User on Twitter:

It’ll be a couple paychecks before I’m in the market, but I’d really be interested in some detail on the probes and signal acquisition techniques. Are folks just dropping a coax connector on the PCB as a test point? The test setup alone has to be a science in itself.

I’d also be interested in knowing if the visiting aliens that you guys mugged to get this scope design are alive and being well cared for.

Hi Daniel, just out of curiosity and within any limits of NDAs, can you go into how the design process goes for one of these bleeding-edge instruments? Mostly curious how much of the physical design, like the channels in the hybrid, are designed by a human versus designed parametrically and synthesized

BONUS: EEs as Astronauts – Audio Exclusive

Astronaut Kay Hire answers the question: “What advice would you give to an engineer hoping to become an astronaut?”

Astronaut Kay Hire answers the question: “What advice would you give to an engineer hoping to become an astronaut?”


Weather CubeSats – #30

We have surprisingly little knowledge of weather. When specifically does a cloud rain? How do these clouds form? We don’t have good answers to these questions. Getting those answers is an electrical engineering problem – one that a handful of professors and NASA are solving with CubeSats.

Historically, we’ve used large satellites and ground-based systems to track weather patterns, but CubeSat arrays are becoming a viable option. In this episode, Daniel Bogdanoff sits down with the leading researchers in this area to hear about the challenges and advancements being made in this area.

We have surprisingly little knowledge of weather. When specifically does a cloud rain? How do these clouds form? We don’t have good answers to these questions. Getting those answers is an electrical engineering problem – one that a handful of professors and NASA are solving with CubeSats.

Historically, we’ve used large satellites and ground-based systems to track weather patterns, but CubeSat arrays are becoming a viable option. In this episode, Daniel Bogdanoff sits down with the leading researchers in this area to hear about the challenges and advancements being made in this area.


Charles Norton – JPL Engineering and Science Directorate POC
Joel T Johnson – ECE Department Chair and Professor at The Ohio State University
Christopher Ball – Research Scientist at The Ohio State University
Dr. V. Chandrasekar (Chandra) – ECE Professor at Colorado State University
Eva Peral – Radar Digital Systems Group Supervisor at JPL



Space is changing. Big, expensive satellites used to be our only option. But, as you’ve probably heard on this podcast, when it comes to technology the world is always shrinking – and satellites are no exception. And that’s what we’re exploring today, specifically, the way cubesats (miniature satellites) are revolutionizing the way we look at earth’s weather.

Hi, my name is Daniel Bogdanoff, and welcome to EEs Talk Tech. In our last episode, I brought you all along with me to Wallops flight facility in Virginia for a rocket launch. It was an eye-opening experience for me, and I wanted to cover more than was reasonable for a single episode. So today, we’re blending the style of last episode and our standard interview-style podcast. I sat down with some EE professors from Ohio State University and Colorado State University to talk about their cube sat projects – all of which monitor weather using radiometers or radar and are pretty high tech.

I also apologize in advance for the background noise during the interviews, I’ve done the best I can to minimize the noise and voiceover parts I feel are hard to hear. I’ve also used clips from their NASA TV presentations wherever possible.

Let’s get started, and hear a little bit about the advantages of CubeSats from Charles Norton.

Advantages of CubeSats [1:05]

Cubesats are nice not just because they’re cheaper and smaller. Thanks to the miniaturization of new technologies in both their physical size and their power consumption, we can deploy more systems, more rapidly, and at a lower cost. They also require smaller teams to develop and operate, and can even have higher measurement accuracy than existing assets.

CubeRRT [3:51]

At its core, CubeRRT is all about making radiometry measurements better by processing out man made emissions – leaving only the earth’s natural emissions.

From NASA: “Microwave radiometers provide important data for Earth science investigations, such as soil moisture, atmospheric water vapor, sea surface temperature and sea surface winds. Man-made radiofrequency interference (RFI) reduces the accuracy of microwave radiometer data, thus the CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission demonstrates technologies to detect and remove these unwanted RFI signals. Successful completion of the CubeRRT mission demonstrates that RFI processing is feasible in space, high volumes of data may be processed aboard a satellite, and that future satellite-based radiometers may utilize RFI mitigation.”

TEMPEST-D [8:00]

Instead of having a big satellite sitting in geosynchronous orbit, an array of CubeSats can be put in orbit such that they each pass over the same spot at set intervals. With some careful calibration, differences in the measurement equipment gets normalized out and they get good weather data.

From JPL: “TEMPEST-D is a technology demonstration mission to enable millimeter wave radiometer technologies on a low-cost, short development schedule. The mission … reduces the risk, cost, and development duration for a future TEMPEST mission, which would provide the first ever temporal observations of cloud and precipitation processes on a global scale.  For TEMPEST-D, JPL developed a mm-wave radiometer payload that operates at five channels from 89 to 182 GHz and fits in a 4U volume within the 6U CubeSat.”

RainCube [11:47] & the Origami Antenna

From JPL: “RainCube (Radar in a CubeSat) is a technology demonstration mission to enable Ka-band precipitation radar technologies on a low-cost, quick-turnaround platform. RainCube developed a 35.75 GHz radar payload to operate within the 6U CubeSat form factor. This mission will validate a new architecture for Ka-band radars and an ultra-compact lightweight deployable Ka-band antenna in a space environment to raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of the radar and antenna from 4 to 7 within the three year life of the program. RainCube will also demonstrate the feasibility of a radar payload on a CubeSat platform.”

Foldable Antenna [12:20]

1.5U volume, Ka-band 35.75 GHz RADAR antenna.

Why Measure Weather from Space? [15:00]

These are just a few of the cubesat projects that went up on the OA9 rocket launch. To hear more about that, check out EEs Talk Tech electrical engineering podcast episode #29 – The Long Road to Space.


The Long Road to Space – #29

I went for a rocket launch, and stayed for the science. Have you ever wondered what it actually takes to get a rocket into space? And why we go there at all?

I went for a rocket launch, and stayed for the science. Have you ever wondered what it actually takes to get a rocket into space? And why we go there at all? I hadn’t. Come with me on a behind the scenes tour of Wallops Flight Facility. Space balloons, sounding rockets, and a bonafide rocket launch!


Thank you again to Laurie Bonneau, John Mitchell, and John Huntington, NASA, and Orbital ATK/Northrup Grumman for letting me use your amazing photos!

Check out Laurie B’s Flickr page here

John M’s Flickr page here

and John Huntington’s coverage of the launch.

Keysight oscilloscope probe promotion here.


0:00 – Getting to Wallops Flight Facility
4:40 – “What’s on Board” Science Briefings
8:03 – CubeSats
9:32 – Concrete in Space?
11:10 – Cold Atom Laboratory and Bose Einstein Condensates

15:09 – Launch Pad 0A Visit

15:50 – Horizontal Integration Facility (HIF)

19:29 – Range Control Center

21:23 – Space Balloons

24:25 – Sounding Rocket Machine Shop and Test Lab

28:53 – Astronaut Kay Hire

31:04 – OA9 rocket launch day!


On the Virginia coast, hours away from any major airport, you’ll find what appears to be a sleepy little town. It’s not a tourist town or a beach town, that’s further down the road. Driving through, you’ll see an abandoned roller rink and billboards for opioid abuse programs, a retro country radio station, and the seafood restaurant in the next town over. There’s a single diner is nestled in a gas station, right across the street from a house with a half dozen American flags and a huge “support our troops” sign in the front yard.

But when you drive a little further, you might start to wonder if there’s more to this town than meets the eye. Down the road from the diner is the smallest Lockheed Martin building I’ve ever seen. Drive a minute longer, and the forest clears.

Immediately, you know there’s more to this town.

Your eyes are first drawn to giant satellite communication antennas, and then to radar installations and what look to be airplane hangers emblazoned with the NASA logo. Of course, all of this is surrounded by fences with stern warnings for trespassers and loiterers – keeping gawkers at bay, leaving them to wonder what’s going on in there.

Thanks to you, who follow us on YouTube and the EEs Talk Tech podcast, I wasn’t left to wonder. And now, neither are you.

NASA granted me and select others special access to tour the facilities.

So, what is this place?

Turns out, it’s a lot of things.

The most exciting role of this place, for me anyways, is that it’s the site of Antares rocket launches.

Twice per year, this sleepy, backwoods town wakes up with a start. The world’s top engineers, scientists, and researchers flock to the town. Wide-eyed high school students working the counter at the lone diner try desperately to feed a line of people that stretches out the door. The hotels in the area are completely booked.

Because this weekend, we’re going to space.

Have you ever wondered what makes a place like this tick? There’s an entire economy and ecosystem dedicated to keeping it afloat.

I always thought the rocketry aspect was the main attraction, but never gave much thought to the actual point of it all. Space is pretty cool, but what does humanity actually gain by getting there?

That’s what we’re going to look at today. We’re going to explore the science. Go past those warning-ridden fences. Take a look at some of the projects that get a lot of press, and some that are less glamorous. Then we’re going to look at how those projects get deployed. And yes, that includes a rocket launch. Here we go.

Day 1. It’s Friday, May 18th. For me, it means travel day. One of the reasons Wallops Flight Facility is a great location is that there’s, quote “virtually unimpeded airspace.” For visitors, this means you have to drive from your major airport of choice for at least a couple hours. So, it’s gonna be a long day. I figure I’ll leave home around 7 AM and arrive at my hotel roughly 16 hours later.

It’s a long day for domestic travel, but what’s a guy to do? As the plane doors close at the gate in Denver, I find out the launch has been delayed 24 hours for additional spacecraft inspections. It’s too late to get off the plane, so I shrug, text my wife that I’m going to be another day on the road, and mentally score one point for fate. Fate 1, Daniel 0. From what I hear, though, delayed launches are just part of the process. No one wants a failed launch.

When I land in DC it’s raining pretty hard, and I decide I don’t really want to cram in a few hours of driving. So I scramble to re-arrange lodging, and catch a movie before bed. Take that, fate.

Day 2. Saturday. I drive from DC to the coast, and start to wonder if I’m really in the right place. I check my phone map, and it says I’m on track. Once the woods clear and I see the com arrays and the hangers with the NASA logo, I know I’m in the right place. After showing a couple forms of ID to an armed federal agent, I get my pass and am ushered into the day’s event – the “what’s on board” mission briefing.

This is when I start to think about more than just the rocketry. Scientists from around the country show off their experiments, which have been loaded into the Cygnus spacecraft, attached to the Antares rocket, and are about to be delivered to the ISS. They’re being delivered on the OA-9 cargo mission, which is why I’m in town. OA9 is completely run by Orbital ATK. Orbital ATK is one of the two commercial companies with NASA launch contracts. The other is SpaceX. But, don’t compare them to Space X, it’s a bit of a touchy subject around here.

Back to the experiments – which NASA likes to call “investigations.” Technically, an experiment’s goal is to prove or disprove a hypothesis, and an investigation is more about gathering data. Potayto potahto.

There are over a thousand kilograms of investigations headed to the ISS this weekend. Access to space gives scientists and engineers the ability to test things that simply aren’t possible on earth. There’s the height advantage – we can look at more of the earth at once without the curvature getting in the way. There’s the obstruction advantage – we can see things without the earth’s atmosphere getting in the way. And there’s the gravity advantage – namely, we can sustain a microgravity environment for more than a dozen seconds.

The investigations being presented also showed me the breadth and diversity of investigations taking place in space. To give you a taste, here are my personal favorites that are a part of this mission. Full disclosure, I’ll likely be too casual with some of these terms, so feel free to correct me in the YouTube comments or at EEs Talk

There’s a DNA/RNA sequencing kit designed to find unknown microbes on the international space station. It’s called “Biomolecule Extraction and Sequencing Technology” investigation, or “BEST” for short. In my opinion, this is the best acronym.

They can find most of the bugs on the ISS with their current, culture-based processes, but this kit will allow them to find other microbes. It will also let them track mutations of known microbes – apparently spaceflight causes genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic changes.

There’s also a sextant for navigation practice, and some medical tools to monitor astronaut’s eyesight. Apparently long term spaceflight messes with people’s eyes. You know, they’ve seen things…

There’s a liquid separation tool that uses capillary forces to separate flowing liquids. Normally, you’d have to let liquids settle (think oil – vinegar salad dressing), but this does it while liquids flow. Speaking of salad dressing, there’s an enhanced vegetable grower on board, too.

Astronauts will record the flavor and texture of the plants, and their results will be compared to a control sample in Houston. Apparently, even salad is an investigation in space.

Another interesting part of the payload is an array of CubeSats – dubbed “CubeRRT”-  aimed at measuring the earth’s RF emissions to mitigate environmental noise.  Microwave Radiometers, a tool used to gather environmental data like seawater salinity, temperature, and humidity are extremely sensitive to the emissions. Because of earth noise and increased spectrum use, the radiometer measurements are becoming noisier and noisier – and will possibly become unusable in the not-to-distant future. The goal of these cubesats is to monitor these environmental factors and create a system to remove noise in real-time. When I sat down with the professors responsible for the program, they mentioned that the emissivity of water was a deciding factor in earth noise. Sensitivity to water vapor peaks around 24 GHz, which is right in the middle of the allocated spectrum for these tools. Vegetation and soil moisture also play a role. So, CubeRRT will be able to measure earth-noise from 6 GHz to 40 GHz. If you want to hear more about this topic, I sat down for an interview with this team that will be a future podcast – assuming my recording worked out.

There was also a concrete project – concrete formation is a pretty well defined terrestrial science, but it’s not well defined in a microgravity environment. Astronauts will mix concrete, let it set, and send it earthward for analysis. The findings of this project are the first stages of exploring construction options for the moon and mars. Can you use Martian soil to make concrete? We’ll see.

Finally, the coldest known spot in the universe will soon be the ISS. Led by Jet Propulsion Laboratories, five different research teams will share time on this project – the Cold Atom Laboratory which is designed to cool gas particles to “like one-tenth of a billion of a degree above absolute zero.” (Robert Shotwell). One team, led by Nobel prize winning physicist Eric Cornell, will study Bose Einstein condensates.

This was a new thing to me, so I did a little digging. A Bose Einstein condensate is a quantum state theorized by Bose and Einstein, and realized in 1995 by the same Dr. Eric Cornell we were just speaking of. Essentially, if you super cool a gas – like super-duper cool it – the atoms start to increase in size and behave as waves. Eventually, the size of these wave-atoms becomes larger than the average distance between wave-particles – meaning they’ll begin to interact. At a certain point, all of the wave-particles (known as Bosons) settle in the same quantum state and form one big, happy quantum wave, known as a Bose-Einstein condensate.

The problem with this, is that they’re really, really hard to create. One of the reasons for this is gravity. Hence, the Cold Atom Lab. The micro-gravity environment of the space station will allow Dr. Cornell and his associates to reach temperatures colder than that of earth. All without needing time from astronauts. Pretty cool!

Sorry, couldn’t resist.

Clearly, there’s a huge breadth of projects invested in this launch.

After the briefing, its back to the hotel to get some work done – it is a workday after all. The day concludes with a dinner with some of the other attendees. Because, what engineer doesn’t love a meal with a bunch of complete strangers?

In a public setting, I almost always feel like the biggest geek in the room. Sometimes that’s fun, most of the time it’s not – I’m sure a lot of you can relate. But this was different. There’s something about being a room full of other self-proclaimed space geeks that really made me feel at home.

After a little too much of the good luck ice cream that Orbital ATK orders from a local shop – it’s chocolate with chili powder and cinnamon, which is surprisingly ok – it’s time to rest up for day 2.

Day 2 starts at 8AM. That’s not bad unless you factor in a couple hour time change for me. I quickly wake up, though, as we all hop on a bus to go out visit the rocket. Naturally, we aren’t able to go right up to it, but we’re pretty darn close. Closer than you’d normally get to a fully-primed rocket, anyways. “Surreal” is a term thrown around a lot by launch 1st timers like me, and though it’s cliché, it’s probably the best word to describe the feeling. It reminds me a bit of my childhood, when I could get a glimpse of the Matterhorn at Disneyland while driving to Grandma’s house on the 5. There’s this academic knowledge of a whole group of people living in their little complex, separated world, and the sight of the monument is just the surface of it.

After 15 minutes of staring, it’s time to head over to what becomes my favorite stop of the tour – the horizontal integration facility, also known as the HIF.

We got to get up close and personal with OA10, the next launch scheduled for a fall launch. Naturally, it’s only partially assembled. The HIF is the place that takes all the pieces and parts from around the world and connects them into one cohesive vehicle. Due to the presence of “active ordinance” and “export controlled technology,” all wireless devices had to be left outside and our picture taking was limited. So, I can’t show you the advanced piping and routing that is the backbone of a rocket engine, but think copper-shiny-jet-engine-plumbing on steroids.

I was surprised by how much coordination was involved in the rocket and assembly.

Again, it was fascinating to me to see so many teams working on so many discrete, but integrated projects. And to watch it all come together in this sleepy backwoods town feels a bit ironic.

A quick pit stop for a press conference, and it’s off to the Range Control Center.

The RCC acts as a sort of mission control for launches and other on-site missions. This is where I start to see the work of yet another set of behind-the-scenes teams. Meteorologists to check winds and weather, radar controls to monitor air & boat traffic (the previous launch got scrubbed by a small boat that came too close), technical teams to handle copious amounts of real-time data and processing, specialists manning custom rocket system monitoring software, and more. The ability to photograph any of this was again limited, but it looked something like the systems you’d see bad guys working on in a James Bond dam-hostage situation.

Each of these teams come together and repeatedly rehearse each launch under varying circumstances and environments so that they’re ready to handle any surprises that could pop up on launch day. It’s humbling to think that each of these workstations essentially represents a mission-critical team.


We hop back on the buses and head over to the space balloon research center.


Space balloons sound a bit counterintuitive, after all, how can a balloon float if there’s no atmosphere? Well, they go up to 120,000 feet – so not really into space which more-or-less starts around 100 km. It’s called near space. These balloons are described by Gabe Garde, Mission Operations Manager for the balloon program, as Football field-sized, ultra-sonically heat-welded trashbags. Really. They’re huge .2-.8 mil thick plastic bags that can stay in the sky for weeks or months. That’s about the thickness of a sandwich bag, but the plastic is a little sturdier. Sometimes referred to as the B-line to space, balloons are the quickest and most cost efficient route to near space.

They can also be launched from nearly anywhere on the globe. Gabe, for example, has spent a collective year living in Antarctica for balloon missions. Why Antarctica?

Remember when we found the giant hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica? Space balloons were the vehicle for those measurement tools. The generally-flat geometry of the universe was also confirmed by a balloon-borne investigation.

These balloons have recently been with a giant gimbal, known as the “Wallops arc second pointer”

We then float out of the balloon research center and file into a giant machine shop – part of the Sounding Rocket Lab, where we meet this fine fellow. [6420]



Nose cone that launches off the rocket to expose scientific equipment, coated with a spray-on silicon as a heat-deterrent

One of the benefits of sounding rockets is the possibility for extremely quick turnaround times. How fast?

9 years! That makes me feel better about the timing of some of my projects.

There are also some electrical test rooms with racks full of equipment and the wrong-colored oscilloscopes, in my opinion anyways. I did a little probing into what electronics they’re using, but didn’t get much info beyond the fact that the sounding rockets use an RS-485 communications bus. I’ll have to bug them a little more next time.

After a couple more technical presentations, we have a little chat with Astronaut Kay Hire. She talks through a lot of the processes, activities, and emotions astronauts go through – they don’t deviate much from what you’ll find in a standard astronaut interview. But, there was a moment that stood out.

This seems like a pretty obvious statement, but being surrounded by the teams of people working on slivers of the rocket & surrounding projects really drives this point home.

She also talked a little bit about navigating around space junk and debris:


After all, the launch already got pushed back a day because they needed to run more tests. So, with our official tour over for the day, we head out to get tacos (which are pretty good by East-coast standards), and worry about Kay’s parting words. There’s also so debate about whether or not it’s worth pulling an all-nighter into day 3.

Why pull an all-nighter? Day 3 starts at 1:30 AM. I’m not in the all-nighter camp – I had my share in college, so, I head back to the hotel for a nap – wake up at 1:30, munch gas station donuts and coffee, and drive to meet our bus – in the pouring rain – not a good sign. I expect a pretty subdued bus crowd, given the time and the weather, but the energy is palpable – you can feel the anticipation. Federal guards escort us and the media to the launch-viewing area. As the crow flies, we’re roughly 2 miles away from the rocket, which is as close as anyone gets to these things. I set up my camera gear alongside some other folks, and glance down the line of media photographers. There’s easily over a million bucks worth of camera gear here. Loudspeakers stream the coms, and we start to get worried. The weather folks over at the Range Control Center don’t like what they are seeing, and move the launch target time to the very end of the 5-minute window. We hear words like “anomaly” and “verifying the authenticity of the fire alarm” and get more nervous. I get more coffee and donuts from the catering tent and wait. Apparently donuts are my nervous food.

Tee minus 12 minutes, and it’s time for the go-no go for launch poll. Everyone goes quiet as the work through the countdown. Over the loudspeakers, we hear

The group collectively releases a sigh of relief, some cheer. We’re launching today. We buckle down for the 12 minute wait.

30 seconds left, and all we can do is fidget and wonder if our camera settings are correct. They say that you shouldn’t try to photograph your first launch – you should just enjoy it and let the million bucks in camera gear handle the pictures. I like a challenge so I take a stab at it, but I recommend that if you go see a launch you let other people do the filming.

10 seconds. The iconic countdown starts…

Here’s what it sounds like when you can see the launch, but before the sound arrives (a good 14 seconds before the sound hits us. The night sky turns to daylight, and the rocket starts to make its way up. I’m struck by how slow it looks at first, and how the 200 ft flame does a weird, glitchy dance. It passes through the clouds.

Then the sound hits us. It’s xdB louder than us talking & cheering. You can feel it, like less bassey fireworks.

The sound slowly fades to a low rumble as the rocket re-appears above the clouds. A few minutes later, the light cuts out. Because stage 2 uses solid-fuel, there’s no throttle. So the Orbital ATK telemetry team calculates the velocity and position of the craft. With this telemetry data, they know how long they have to wait before igniting the second stage. This ensures that they only need minimal adjustments to get sync with the ISS.

Adjustments require fuel, which means weight, which means cost. And, private space is all about cost-per-pound into orbit. That’s why the launch window was only 5 minutes, it was a cost play. Cost was also a big factor in the decision to retire the space shuttle.

Stage two kicks in, the brightest star in the sky. Slowly, it fades out and is gone

It’s now past 5AM and people start to pack up, tired, but happy. The firefighting teams hop in their firetrucks and drive towards the launch pad. I can only imagine the relief of the teams that have spent months and years on these systems. You’d never know, though, as their voices ring out over the loudspeakers, working through their post-launch checklists. They are a little more casual, though, a little bit of pride and relief sneaking past their professional masks. There are some anomalies, though, so it may still be a long day for a few folks.

After this 2 ½ day space bonanza, I say goodbye to my new friends and start the long trip home to Colorado. While driving across the massive Chesapeake Bay Bridge, and flying over the Rocky Mountains, I have some time to think about something Astronaut Kay Hire said in her talk. She said this:

I can’t help but resonate with this in the moment. I’m driving over a 4.3 mile steel bridge – when it was built it was the largest over-water steel structure. I’m flying over half of the USA, a trip would take weeks without technology. Then, I think back to the rocket launch. Months, years, and careers were spent making that launch happen. Even more months and years of time was dedicated to the cargo. Even more time dedicated to having a place in space to put it all. Teams upon teams, collective lifetimes of effort – all boiled down to a single, fiery, loud instant.

I dwell on Kay’s statement. “We’re not   to fly in space. But we’re built to adapt.” Clearly. That’s why we have spacesuits, 4 mile long bridges, airplanes, and sleepy towns that transform into technology centers. So I agree. We’re not built to fly in space. But maybe, maybe we were made for it.

Most of the big white coms arrays belong to the NOAA Command and Data Acquisition Station. NOAA, founded by Nixon, has a suite of environmental monitoring satellites. These satellites need to be nudged periodically to remain in orbit, and they send down an obscene amount of data that needs to be collected and distributed.

The next time your local weather forecast is accurate, the data that enabled it probably came through this site.


Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics – Electrical Engineering Podcast #20

Wide bandgap semiconductors, like Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) are shaping the future of power electronics by boosting power efficiency and reducing physical footprint. Server farms, alternative energy sources, and electrical grids will all be affected!

Wide bandgap semiconductors, like Gallium Nitride (GaN) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) are shaping the future of power electronics by boosting power efficiency and reducing physical footprint. Server farms, alternative energy sources, and electrical grids will all be affected! Mike Hoffman and Daniel Bogdanoff sit down with Kenny Johnson to discuss in today’s electrical engineering podcast.



Fact Sheet:

Fact Sheet

Tech Assessment (Good timeline information)

Agenda – Wide Bandgap Semiconductors

Use in Power Electronics

3:00 What is a wide bandgap semiconductor? GaN (Gallium Nitride) devices and SiC (Silicon Carbide) can switch on and off much faster than typical silicon power devices. Wide bandgap semiconductors also have better thermal conductivity. And, wide bandgap semiconductors have a significantly lower drain-source resistance (R-on).
For switch mode power supplies, the transistor switch time is the key source of inefficiency. So, switching faster makes things more efficient.

4:00 They will also reduce the size of power electronics.

6:30 Wide bandgap semiconductors have a very fast rise time, which can cause EMI and RFI problems. The high switching speed also means they can’t handle much parasitic inductance. So, today’s IC packaging technology isn’t ideal.

8:30 Wide bandgap semiconductors are enabling the smart grid. The smart grid essentially means that you only turning on things being used, and turning off power completely when they aren’t being used.

9:35 Wide bandgap semiconductors will probably be integrated into server farms before they are used in power grid distribution or in homes.

10:20 Google uses a lot of power. 2.3 TWh (terawatt hour)
NYT article:

It’s estimated Google has 900,000 servers, and that accounts for maybe 1% of the world’s servers.
So, they are willing to put in the investment to work out the details of this technology.

11:50 The US Department of Energy wants people to get an advanced degree in power electronics. Countries want to have technology leadership in this area.

13:00 Wide bandgap semiconductors are also very important for wind farms and other alternative forms of energy.

Having a solid switch mode power supply means that you don’t have to have extra capacity.

USA Dept of Energy: If industrial motor systems were wide bandgap semiconductors took over, it would save a ton of energy.

14:45 A huge percentage of the world’s power is consumed by electrical pumps.

16:20 Kenny’s oldest son works for a company that goes around and shows companies how to recover energy costs.

There aren’t many tools available for measuring wide bandgap semiconductor power electronics.

19:30 Utilities and servers are the two main industries that will initially adopt wide band gap semiconductors

20:35 When will this technology get implemented in the real world? There are parts available today, but it probably won’t be viable for roughly 2-5 years.

21:00 Devices with fast switching are beneficial, but have their own set of problems. The faster a devices switches, the more EMI and RFI you have to deal with.

Spread spectrum clocking is a technique used to pass EMI compliance.

24:00 Band gaps of different materials: Diamond 5.5 eV Gallium Nitride (GaN) 3.4 eV Silicon Carbide (SiC) 3.3 eV

How Internet is Delivered – Data Centers and Infrastructure – #12

Laser Netflix delivery, backyard data centers, and how the internet gets delivered to homes and businesses. This week’s podcast guest is optical guru Stefan Loeffler. Hosted by Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman, EEs Talk Tech is a twice-monthly engineering podcast discussing tech trends and industry news from an electrical engineer’s perspective.

Laser-delivered Netflix and backyard data centers!

The conversation continues with optical communications guru, Stefan Loeffler. In this episode, Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman discuss optical infrastructure today and what the future holds for optics.

Video version (YouTube):


Audio Version:

Discussion Overview:

Optical Communication Infrastructure 00:30

Optics = Laser-driven Netflix delivery system

Client-side vs line-side 1:00

Line-side is the network that transports the signals from the supplier to the consumer

Client-side is the equipment that is either a consumer or business, accepting the data from the network provider.


Yellow cables in your wall indicate presence of fiber 1:40

Technically, optics is communication using radiation! But it is invisible to us as humans. 2:20


Getting fiber all the way to the antenna is one of the major new technologies 2:30

But this requires you to have power at the antenna 2:45

However, typically there is a “hotel” or  base station at the bottom of the antenna where the power is and where fiber traditionally connects, instead of up to the antenna

Really new or experimental antennas have fiber running all the way up the pole  3:28


Network topologies- star, ring, and mesh 3:42

Base stations are usually organized in star-form, or a star network pattern. A star network starts at a single base station and distributes data to multiple cells

Rings (ring networks) are popular in metro infrastructure because you can encircle an entire area 4:20

Optical rings are like traffic circles for data.

Is ring topology the most efficient or flexible? 6:20

An advantage of ring and mesh topologies is built-in resilience

Mesh topologies have more bandwidth but require more fiber optic cable 7:10

How often is the topology or format of a network defined by geography or regulations? 8:30


How consumers get fiber 9:20

Business or academic campuses typically utilize mesh networks on the client side, subscribing to a fiber provider

Fiber itself or a certain bandwidth using that fiber can be leased

If you’re a business, like a financial institution, and latency or bandwidth is critical, leasing fiber is necessary so you have control over the network 9:45


What’s the limiting factor of optical? 

What are the limitations of the hardware that’s sending/receiving optical signals? 11:08

Whatever we do in fiber, at some point, it is electrical 11:27

There will be a tipping point where quantum computing and photon-computing (optical computing) comes into play 11:40

Will optical links ever compete with silicon? Maybe we will have optical computers in the future 12:02

The limiting factor is the power supply 12:40

What’s costing all this energy? 12:58

The more data (bits and bytes) we push through, the more energy in the form of optical photons or electrons we are pushing through. We also must use a DSP for decoding which costs energy

One of the first 100 Gb links between two clients was between the New York Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange 14:00


The evolution of the transmission of data 14:45 

Will we ever have open-air optical communication? 15:50

RF technology uses open-air communication today, but it is easy to disturb

The basic material fiber is made of is cheap (silica, quartz), and can be found on any beach 16:08

Whereas copper has a supply problem and, thus, continues to increase in price


Other uses for optical 16:33

Crystal fiber and multicore fiber is being experimented with to increase the usable bandwidth

Optical, as waveguides, can be built into small wafer sections 17:15

Optics is used in electrical chips when photons are easier to push through than electrons

Cross-talk can happen with optical, too 18:13

Testing is done with optical probing, which works because of optical coupling

Optical-to-electrical converter solution 


Optical satellite communication 19:48

Hollow-fiber could be used in a vacuum, such as space

The refractive index of the fiber’s core is higher than the cladding, which guides the optical signal through 21:05

A hollow-fiber would be like a mini mirror tube


Optical data transmission 21:25 

Higher carrier frequencies means you can modulate faster, but there’s more loss and dispersion

This means optical communication could be harder in open-air vs. in traditional fiber 22:45

70-80% headroom is typical

The congested part of a network drives the change in technology. 24:25


Mega data centers vs. distributed data centers 

Cooling and power is important so big data centers are being built by Google, Facebook, Netflix in places where cheap, cool water is abundant 24:30

Distributed data centers are becoming more popular than mega-data centers 24:55

All images on Facebook have “cdn” in the URL because the image is hosted on a content distribution network, or cloud

Data centers are described by megawatts (MW) of power, not size or amount of data processed 26:20

Internal data center traffic takes up about 75% of the traffic 27:47

Distributed networks utilize a mesh network and require communication between networks


Telecom starts using faster fiber when about 20% of the fiber is used 28:55

This 20% utilization is also common in CAN busses because of safety-critical data communication

Uptime guarantees require the Telecom industry to keep this number at 20%


Keysight optical resources and solutions  31:00

Predictions 31:45

Also, check out our previous conversations with Stefan about Optical Communication 101 and Optical Communication Techniques.

Optical 101 – #9

How does optical communication work? We sit down with Stefan Loeffler to discuss the basics of optics and its uses for electrical engineering.

Optical communication 101 – learn about the basics of optics! Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman interview Stefan Loeffler.

Video Version (YouTube):

Audio version:

Discussion overview:

Similarities between optical and electrical

Stefan was at OFC
What is optics? 1:21
What is optical communication? 1:30
There’s a sender and a receiver (optical telecommunication)
Usually we use a 9 um fiber optic cable, but sometimes we use lasers and air as a medium

The transmitter is typically a laser
LEDs don’t work for optical

Optical fiber alignment is challenging, and is often accomplished using robotics

How is optical different from electrical engineering?

Photodiodes act receivers, use a transimpedance amplifier. It is essentially “electrical in, electrical out” with optical in the middle.

Optical used to be binary, but now it’s QAM 64

Why do we have optical communication?
A need for long distance communication led to the use of optical.
Communication lines used to follow train tracks, and there were huts every 80 km. So, signals could be regenerated every 80 km.

In the 1990s, a new optical amplifier was introduced.

Optical amplifier test solutions

Signal reamplifcation vs. signal regeneration

There’s a .1 dB per km loss in modern fiber optic cable 11:20
This enables undersea fiber optic communication, which has to be very reliable

How does undersea communication get implemented?
Usually by consortium: I-ME-WE SEA-ME-WE

AT&T was originally a network provider

What is dark fiber (also known as dark fibre)?
Fiber is cheap, installation and right-of-way is expensive

What happens if fiber breaks?

Dark fiber can be used as a sensor by observing the change in its refractive index

Water in fiber optic line is bad, anchors often break fiber optic cable 17:30

Fiber optic cable can be made out of a lot of different things

Undersea fiber has to have some extra slack in the cable
Submarines are often used to inspect fiber optic cable

You can find breaks in the line using OTDR – “Optical time domain reflectometry”

A “distributed reflection” means a mostly linear loss. The slope of the reflection tells you the loss rate.

The refractive index in fiber optic cable is about 1.5

Latency and delay 23:00
The main issue is the data processing, not the data transmission

A lot of optical engineers started in RF engineering 24:00

Environmental factors influence the channel, these include temperature, pressure, and physical bends
Recently thunderstorms were found to have an effect on the fiber channel

Distributed fiber sensing is used drilling

Polarization in fiber, polarization multiplexing techniques
Currently, we’re using 194 THz, which gives 50 nm windows

Future challenges for optical 28:25
It’s cost driven. Laying fiber is expensive. And, when all dark fiber is being used, you have to increase bandwidth on existing fiber.

Shannon relation 30:00

Predictions 31:10

Watch the previous episode here!

Producer and Consumer Risk – #8

We sit down with Matthew Woerner discuss the basics of producer and consumer risk. What should manufacturers and tech consumers do to protect themselves?

Hosted by Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman, EEs Talk Tech is a twice-monthly engineering podcast discussing tech trends and industry news from an electrical engineer’s perspective.

Learn more about producer risk and consumer risk! Mike Hoffman, Daniel Bogdanoff, and Matthew Woerner discuss various aspects of the risk involved in manufacturing and buying goods.

Audio player:


More about calibration:

Discussion Overview:

What is consumer risk and producer risk?
There’s always risk, so how do you manage it?
What should consumers do to be safe?

How are producers testing their products before selling them?

The history of the ballpoint pen is a good object lesson for producers @7:00
Are lifetime warranties just a marketing ploy?
Lifetime warranty transfers consumer risk into producer risk

As a producer how do you decide how long your warranty should be?

How to build reliability models for products 10:30

How can we predict a failure rate for a product?
We have use temperature chamber and other test techniques.
How do you balance AFR (annualized failure rate) with the risk of experiencing catastrophic failure ?

What is a false accept? What is the “escape rate,” what is a false pass ?
A false accept is the term for test results that should have failed, but instead pass.

How do you avoid catastrophic issues in production? 15:15
How accurate can you really be? How accurately can you measure something that takes time?

Is there a guide for the uncertainty of measurements?
Traceability is important for making reliable measurements

Fill up your gas tank early in the morning and you get more gas

What should you do now? 20:00
What is margin stackup?
Everything in a device has margin, so margin stackup is the combination of all uncertainties.

Calibration is a very wide industry, it doesn’t just apply to test and measurement! Think, car alignments, etc.

What is Matthew’s biggest challenge? 24:23

How do you make sure your measurements are accurate?

Predictions 28:00

Some companies test products based on the region that product is being sold into, as different regions can have different quality expectations.

AI Ethics and Autonomous Vehicles – #7

How do we handle the ethical dilemmas inherent in building increasingly capable and intelligent systems? AI is all around us- likely a part of your phone, home systems, and even cars. Autonomous cars promise greater convenience, safety, and efficiency, but is our world ready to tackle the implicit ethical dilemmas? Daniel Bogdanoff, Mike Hoffman, and Brig Asay sit down to discuss.

Hosted by Daniel Bogdanoff and Mike Hoffman, EEs Talk Tech is a twice-monthly engineering podcast discussing tech trends and industry news from an electrical engineer’s perspective.

How do we handle the ethical dilemmas that arise when building increasingly capable and intelligent systems? AI is all around us- likely a part of your phone, home systems, and even cars. Autonomous cars offer greater convenience, safety, and efficiency, but is the world ready to tackle the corresponding ethical dilemmas?

Video (YouTube):

Follow Brig Asay on Yelp @baasay.

Discussion Overview:

AI Ethics
Restaurant Reviews by AI 01:41
Self-driving (autonomous) cars
AI ethical dilemma and AI decision liability
What about consumer liability?
AI decision-making without human interaction 07:25
The three stages of AI

Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI also known as “weak AI”), Artificial General Intelligence (AGI), Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)  07:48
AI consciousness, AI ethical standards, and self-replicating AI
Humanoid robots
Should AI be allowed to replicate itself? 10:16
Task-based AI using computers

Is there a need to program AI to have morals and ethics?
The prisoner’s dilemma and game theory
Challenges of marketing self-driving cars

Autonomous buses emulating human behavior
Should AI have to follow local laws and regulations? 17:50
Telemetry tracking autonomous vehicles for speed monitoring

Self-programmable FPGAs and neural network simulations

Can a computer be evil? 26:30

EEs Talk Tech Electrical Engineering podcast